Object Oriented Design Principles

Hello dear readers. Welcome back to my blog. As we know by now most programming language support and encourage object-oriented programming and in this blog post we are going to talk about the principles of the Object-Oriented Programming. The key design principles of Object-Oriented Programming are:

Abstraction – is the idea of simplifying a concept to its bare essentials in some context. It allows you to better understand the concept by stripping it down to a simplified version. Your abstraction should be intuitive.

Encapsulation – can be thought of as putting something inside a capsule. In software, restricting access to inner objects and properties helps with data integrity. Encapsulation makes your classes easier to manage, because you know what part is used by other systems and what isn’t. This means that you can easily rework the inner logic while retaining the public parts and be sure that you have not broken anything. A disadvantage of it is that working with the encapsulated functionality from the outside becomes simpler as you have less things to think about.

Decomposition – is the action of splitting an object into multiple separate smaller parts. Spitted parts are easier to understand, maintain and program. There exist three types of decomposition relationships: 1. Association, which defines a loose relationship between two components. They don’t depend on each other but work together. 2. Aggregation, which defines a weak ‘has-a’ relationship between a whole and its parts. The parts though can exist without the whole. 3. Composition, which defines a strong ‘has-a’ relationship where the whole and the part can’t exist without each other.

Polymorphism – is the ability for data to be processed in more than one form. It allows the performance of the same task in various ways. It also consists of method overloading and method overriding.

Inheritance – is the ability of one class to inherit properties of another class, called the parent class. We can inherit properties from other classes s well.  So, when we create a class, we do not need to write all the properties and functions again and again, as these can be inherited from another class which possesses it. Inheritance allows the user to reuse the code whenever needed.

Design principles are rules in software design that have proven themselves valuable over the years. Just like any other ‘game’ even when we code we need to know and follow the rules. This is the main reason why I choose to write about the principles of Object-Oriented Programming.


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